(A) The background history of the Irrigation and Water
Utilization Management Department
The background history of the Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department has being improved continuously based on the irrigation work in Myanmar. Irrigation work has a long history in Myanmar, being practiced since the time of the Ancient Myanmar Kingdom of Pyu Dynasty which is more Ancient than Bagan Kingdom Era. Meiktila Lake, Kinda and Nga Pyaung Diversion Weir in Kyaukse District, Old Mu Canal and Mahananda Lake in Shwebo District were monument of Ancient Myanmar irrigation works. Subsequent to the entry of the British into Myanmar and attendant colonial period, a Public Works Department was established in the year 1961, for maintenance of building and construction of new irrigation facilities in Lower Myanmar. The activities relating to irrigation were solely handled by Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department.
After that, construction of infrastructure including roads and buildings as well as single irrigation works implementation as Shwebo Canal, Mandalay Canal and Mone, Mann, Salin Canals were significantly accelerated. Moreover in the delta, there is more concern about drainage and flood protection and construction and maintenance works of embankments were conducted during 1881 and 1917. Meanwhile irrigation technology including water related science such as Hydrology, Hydraulic and irrigation engineering technologies were gradually improved. In 1917, Building and Road Branch and Irrigation Branch were established under the Public Works and managed by different Chief Engineer. In 1929, Public Works Department and Irrigation Department were established separately and aiming to carry out specific works.
After the First World War, Irrigation Department was extended for establishment of Divisional Irrigation Office in Upper and Lower Myanmar and Irrigation Department organized as two Divisional Irrigation Office in each Upper and Lower Myanmar in accordance with the work load condition at that time. However, during Colonial Period 1930 - 1931, World Economic depression occurred worldwide. By this affects, irrigation works also declined in country and two divisional offices reduced. In doing so, Irrigation Department organized as two divisional offices namely Irrigation Divisional Office in Upper Myanmar and Delta Divisional Office in Lower Myanmar together with (9) Nos of irrigation districts for undertaking irrigation works in Myanmar.
During the Second World War, under the Rule of India, Irrigation Branch was established under the Agriculture and Rural Economic Department.
In 1963, irrigation works and government officials of Kachin, Kayah and Shan State were transferred to the Irrigation Branch. In 1966, Irrigation Department conducted Operation and Maintenance of existing Irrigation Facilities for agricultural development and also laid down new project formulation throughout the country. For that, Irrigation Department was broadened its organizational frameworks.
In 1972, all departments and corporations under Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry were reorganized and Irrigation Branch together with Rural Farm Improvement Corporation and extension service for farm land Branch were combined and called as Irrigation Department.
And then Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was divided into two ministries as Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries on 15 May, 1983. In order to conduct and emphasize implementation and development works for the country more efficiently, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was divided into Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Forestry on 5th March, 1992. After that, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation was reorganized with composition of (11) No of departments on 7th August, 1996. Among them, Irrigation Department is set up as the biggest department with large numbers of staffs, plays a key role for supporting agricultural development through irrigation management. The Irrigation Department is headed by a Director General, composed of (6) primary branches and (6) other branches correlated to it. The primary branches constitute the Administration, Planning and Works, Procurement, Accounts, Design, and Works Inspection. The other branches are investigation including Geology, Hydrology, Survey & Investigation, Drilling & Blasting, Hydropower and Irrigation Technology Center respectively.
The normal (14) Maintenance Divisions of the respective States and Regions, have been supplemented with further establishments of the Nay Pyi Taw, the Shan State (Northern) and Shan State (Eastern) Division, and thus total (17). Eleven Maintenance Divisions are headed by Directors and six by Deputy Directors.
Additionally, there also exist (9) Construction Divisions. They are not State and Region-wise Location, but remain sited in precincts adjacent to the construction works such as Hlegu, Pyay, Magway, Shwebo, Pyinmana, Yangon and Meiktila. (9) Divisions are under the control of Directors. Similarly (4) Mechanical Divisions, each under a Director have been established at Yangon, Taungoo, Magway and Mandalay, as appropriate adjacent to the construction projects.
In 15 January of 2016, two departments, Irrigation Department and Water Resources Utilization Department were combined and called as Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. And then, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation was combined with Ministry of Cooperative and Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development and after reorganizing (3) ministries change into one ministry which is called as Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation on 1st April, 2016. Under the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation, total (12) Nos of departments are constituted and correlated each other including Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department.
The Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department under Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation has accordingly been actively engaged in developing the agricultural sector in country and socio-economic life of people through ensuring agricultural water and domestic water used and protecting and mitigation of natural disaster in country.
(C) Policy of IWUMD
To conduct water management in accordance with climate change adaption in order to comply with necessity of local requirement together with ensure water safety for future generation .
(D) Objective of IWUMD
To mitigate natural disaster especially for flood and reduce water scarcity for irrigation and drinking water due to climate change.
To manage water resources for future sustainability by implementing water related infrastructures.
(E) Main Functions of Irrigation and Water Utilization
(1) To Carry out construction of new projects including hydro electricity generating with Multipurpose
Dam projects after studying feasibility of project with aspect of local development using without
negative impacts on natural resources.
(2) To perform operation and maintenance of the existing irrigation facilities and irrigation networks
for effective and efficient utilization of agricultural water.
(3) To undertake construction, rehabilitation, operation and maintenance of flood protection dikes
(4) To undertake construction and rehabilitation of small embankments and tanks to fulfill the safety
of drinking water and greening of areas in accordance with necessity of locality.
(5) To provide technical assistance for operation and maintenance of Village Embankment and
Village Irrigation works.
(6) To involve the land consolidation process with other relevant departments including of systematic
and effective water management practice.
(7) To conduct the training to farmers in water user groups for enhancement of irrigation technologies
together with irrigation water use efficiency.
(8) To make sure for fully supply of irrigation water in pumped irrigation projects.
(9) To supply more irrigation water from pumped irrigation projects and ground water tube wells in
Central Dry Zone, especially in Sagaing Region, Magway Region and Mandalay Region.
(10) To extend ground water exploration works to fulfill irrigation water and domestic water without
negative impacts on natural resources.
(11) To convert from diesel driven pumped irrigation projects to electric power driven pumped irrigation
project depending on availability of Electric power.
(12) To educate water saving technologies for farmers in pumped irrigation projects and ground water
tube wells sites.